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A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s naturally clear lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil.  The lens works much like a camera lens, focusing light onto the retina at the back of the eye.  The lens also adjusts the eye’s focus, letting us see things clearly both up close and far away.  When the lens becomes cloudy, light rays cannot pass through it easily and vision is blurred.

The lens is mostly made of water and protein.  The protein is arranged in a precise way that keeps the lens clear and allows light to pass through it.  As we age, some of the protein may clump together and start to cloud a small area of the lens.  This is a cataract, and over time, it may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see.

Most cataracts occur gradually as we age and don’t become bothersome until after age 55 or so.  However, cataracts can also be present at birth (congenital cataracts) or occur at any age as the result of an injury to the eye (traumatic cataracts). Cataracts can also be caused by diseases such as diabetes or can occur as the result of long-term use of certain medications, such as steroids.

Cataract development is a normal process of aging, but cataracts also develop from eye injuries, radiation, certain diseases, medications or long-term exposure to sunlight.  Your genes may also play a role in cataract development.

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